Sunday, December 29, 2019

Essay on Developmental Theories

Developmental theories are attempts by psychologists to understand how humans develop from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Most of the theories were advanced after extensive studies were conducted on the human development cycle. This was a clear contrast from what used to happen before these theories were advanced; children were considered as smaller adults and their development was never of great concern (Crain, 2010). The existence of several theories in this particular area of human psychology indicates that there are different approaches and accepted interpretations on the influences on a person’s development. The theories are however inter-related in a few aspects such as that most of them argue that human development occurs in stages or phases that are mainly reliant on the age of a person. When applied interactively, the theories offer valuable insight on the development of humans in terms of cognition, emotion and their physical aspect. This paper shall foc us on the developmental theories, their similarities and differences. The theories on human development were advanced by theorists such as Freud, Piaget, Vygotsky, Gestalt and Erikson. However since analyzing all the theories in the paper would reduce the effectiveness of noting their differences and inter-relation, the paper shall mainly focus on the theories by Piaget, Freud and Vygotsky. Jean Piaget’s Theory According to Piaget, how a person understands something is based on their understanding and interpretation of events in the world. Piaget believes that there are four stages through which a person goes through during development of their cognition. The sensor motor level extends up to when a child is two years from the time they are born. At this stage, a child understands that they are independent of their environment. This understanding is founded on the child learning that objects and people continue to exist even when not in the child’s sight. Before a child fully completes this stage they normally feel that things have been lost or people have gone for good when they are not in their sight. The second level in cognitive development is referred to as the preoperational level and this is where the child begins to acquire language skills. This level is also characterized by personification of things by the child. At this stage it is common to see a child having a conversatio n with their toys based on the assumption that they also have hearing abilities. This stage happens in a child’s second year up to their 7th year. My 7 year old son has been going through this stage and it has been interesting to see him personalize some of his things such as the toy fire- fighters I bring him; he believes they can hear him as he commands them on how to put mock fires. The third stage according to Piaget is the concrete stage. At this level a person can manipulate their acquired knowledge to create awareness and understanding. The last stage suggested by Piaget was the formal operations level where a person is able to understand things they can’t see or have never even seen. Sigmund Freud The psychoanalysis theory was developed by Freud though other psychological theorists have added on it. Its main focus is on the study of how humans behave and function psychologically. Its 3 main integral components are a methodology for treating psychological illnesses, a methodology for investigating the mind and how a person thinks, and a theory system on human behavior. The theory system involves several theories which differ on many points but all of them are centered on how strong our unconscious elements influence the way we think. Freud noted that at certain points in person’s early development, the behavior of children is oriented around particular parts of the body; during breastfeeding the child’s behavior is concentrated on the mouth, on the anus during training on toilet usage, the latter later shifts to the genitals. The theorist believed that at infancy humans are polymorphously perverse; this means that they excite themselves sexually from any body part (Meggitt, 2006). Later these changes due to influences brought about by socialization. According to the theory, there are 5 stages through which a child goes through in their development; oral, latency, phallic, anal and genital. The oral stage is the first one and it extends from birth up to when a child is 2 years old. At this stage, the child derives their pleasure from activities involving the mouth. This is mainly because this is the stage the child is being nursed and fed by the care givers. The Id is dominant here as the super ego and ego have not yet fully developed. This translates to the child not possessing a sense of self and hence all the child’s actions are centered on the pleasure principle. The 2nd stage is the anal stage where the child’s activities are mainly concentrated on the anus. This stage extends to the 3rd year from the 15th month. It is important to note that the formation of the ego is still continuing at this stage. The excitement of the child around the anus is believed to come from the toilet training they are getting. The Id conflict that arises at this stage is also of significant influence to the child. The 3rd stage, phallic stage, goes to 5 years from 3 years. The child derives pleasure from activities involving their genitals. It should be understood that though the focus is on the genitals it is not in a sexual way since the child is still immature sexually. This age is also characterized by a child’s increased interest in their bodies, those of their parents and their friends. The oedipal conflict is also existent at this stage as a child becomes attracted to parents of the opposite sex. The latency stage is where the habits acquired in the latter stages are solidified. The Id drives are inaccessible to the ego at this stage as they have already been repressed at the phallic stage. The drives are hence said to be hidden or latent; hence the name. Children at this stage may however experience some conflicts if the oedipal conflict has not been resolved. The final stage is the genital stage, which starts at puberty up to when development stops at around 18 years. The main task at this level is the child’s detachment from their parents or guardians. The individual also gets to early childhood residues at this stage. The ego uses secondary processes and hence love relationships may be formed at this stage. Families are also developed when children get to this stage and also the child gets to accept the responsibilities that come with adulthood. Vygotsky Vygotsky believed that children acquire knowledge through interacting with the culture around them. According to the theorist, learning is optimum when students are allowed to learn in their ZPD (Driscoll, 1994). For a student to get to this ZPD, Vygotsky believed that they needed guidance by an adult or more experienced person who is commonly referred to as the MKO. This theory can be applied in class by teachers by pairing weak students with stronger students academically. The stronger students will help the weaker ones attain their ZPD. This theory can also be applied in my profession, fire fighting, by pairing up inexperienced fire fighters with the experienced ones so that the rookies may get to learn techniques involved in the profession. This theory focuses on the interconnection between people and the socio-cultural context in which they interact in. Vygotsky argued that people utilized tools that were developed from culture for mediation in their social environments. Some of these tools were writing and speech. At the initial stages these tools were developed to communicate the person’s needs though their internalization led to improved cognitive skills. Similarities between the Theories Piaget’s theory was similar to Vygotsky’s in that they both used constructivism approach in their works. This approach considers that cognition comes from mental construction. This means that people learn new things by putting together information they already have with new information. This approach was however different to what Freud used in his works as he used a behaviorist approach to advance his argument. Both Piaget and Vygotsky believed that the learning process is affected by the attitudes of the students and also the context in which new information is taught. Vygotsky’s theory was also similar to that of Piaget in that both theorists believed that cognitive growth boundaries are set by influences of the society. Freud on the other part believed that learning was influenced by other factors such as age and what was being taught. Though Piaget and Freud had differences in their theories they both shared the belief that a person’s development is influenced by what stage of life they are at the moment. They also showed that this development was visible on the activities they are required to do at the various stages. Differences between the Theories According to Vygotsky, Piaget had advanced a quantifiable technique that was to revolutionize study of cognition in children. However, Vygotsky believed that there were flaws in Piaget’s theory and hence the former sought to rectify them. Vygotsky emphasized on egocentrism in his studies in a move seen as an attempt to cater for the flaws that were in Piaget’s work. The interpretation Vygotsky had of Piaget’s work, egocentrics speech represented the preoperational stage of development. Sigmund’s work was different from Piaget’s in that it used a qualitative approach to understanding human development. Most of the stages involved in Freud’s theory are not quantifiable and as such may be missed at times or influenced by other factors leading to wrong interpretation. Under normal conditions, social speech is developed in children after they acquire egocentric speech. Logic came about in later developmental stages according to Piaget. From this, the theorist states that egocentric thought connects inner speech and logic. Egocentric speech has no future at the schools level and decreases as it does not fulfill any objective. Piaget believed that it decreased as egocentrism disappeared; Vygotsky pointed out some of what he believed were Piaget’s methodological assumptions that were erroneous. He had greatly overlooked the role of activity in the child with regard to the thought process; the second error of Piaget’s work according to Vygotsky was that he had combined philosophy and psychology though he avoided theorizing (Tharpe and Gallimore, 1988). According to Piaget and Freud, students acquire new knowledge through interactions with the environment.   Vygotsky believed that learning took place before development due to symbolism and history (Meggitt, 2006). Piaget and Freud had combined learning with development while Vygotsky had viewed the two as separate processes. Piaget argued that cognitive development was brought about by interactions with the environment while Freud believed this was brought about by a person’s psyche: id, super ego and ego. It should be noted that the theories by Freud were mainly concerned with mental orders as compared to the others which dealt with normal functioning. Interaction of Cognitive, Physical and Emotional Development in a Child’s overall Development A child’s cognitive, physical and emotional development stages are all inter-related and sometimes dependent on each other.   This is because the growth of a child does not happen cognitively alone but also emotionally and physically. According Piaget, cognitive development occurs at various ages in life and impacts on how a person relates to others; emotional development. Also in the case of young girls, it is their physical development of breasts that at times leads them to shy off from speaking in public. This shying off is a stage in their emotional development and hence showing the relationship between cognition and emotion in development. Also at such stages as the anal stage, a child mainly bases their activities around their anus; they draw some emotional satisfaction from this part of the body. This emotional satisfaction comes about because the child is becoming aware of their physical development a process aided by cognitive development through toilet lessons offered by the guardians. In the Freud theories, it is argued that children are born polymorphously perverse which means that they can get sexual excitement- a form of emotion- from any part of their body though this changes later as the child’s cognitive development on the issue of sex is shaped in a particular way by societal influences. Importance of the Knowledge on Developmental Theories in helping Children achieve their potential Knowledge on the stages that children undergo during their development helps in understanding the problems they experience at different stages of their development. This helps the parent, teacher or guardian facilitate solving of this problem so that the pursuance of the child’s goals cannot be affected. This knowledge also helps in understanding what knowledge requirements children have at different stages of development. Hence the relevant person can provide this information and avoid the child getting wrong information from elsewhere. For example the knowledge would help a parent with a child in the genital stage of Freud’s theory understand that their child requires sex knowledge; however, the parent would be well advised to seek another person to give this knowledge as their child is at a stage where they are seeking to be independent from the parent (Crain, 2010). Conclusion As can be seen above, the developmental theories are inter-related though there also are differences in some of their approaches to human development. The 3 theories used in this paper have shown this inter-relation and differences. Knowledge on these theories is important not only to people studying psychologists but to all those interacting with children as they help them understand how the children think; hence helping the children achieve their potential REFERENCES Meggitt, C. (2006). Child Development. London: Heinemann. Crain, C.W. (2010). Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Driscoll, M. P. (1994). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Massachusetts: Allyn Bacon. Tharpe, R. G., Gallimore, R (1988). Rousing minds to life. Cambridge, MA. Cambridge University Press.

Saturday, December 21, 2019

This Research Paper Look To Take A Deep Look Into The Child

This research paper look to take a deep look into The Child and Family Services Improvement and Innovation Act sponsored by Geoff Davis. It looks to understand the reasoning behind the idea of this bill, taking a look at the staggering statistics of children within the foster care system, as well as a fundamental understanding of each component within the bill. There has been over 30,000 child increase in the foster care system within the last few years that leaves us to ask a question asked by the senator of Texas. Should this bill simply be renewed, or should funding be increased to reflect these changes to insure that all children within the system see this funding and receive the help during and after the time in foster care.†¦show more content†¦Finally, the unfortunate facts for case workers is they get burned out, they are overwhelmed and overworked and as a result we see a high turnover rate (Davenport, 2015). Whether the reasoning behind the increase is a result of positive reasons or negative its significant jump is a sign of an issue. There are simply to many children within the system needing families, therapy, and a stable environment before harm is done. The Child and Family Services Improvement and Innovation Act The passing of The Child and Family Service Improvement and Innovation Act, H.R. 2883, was essentially put into place to counteract some of the dangers of the foster care system. It Put in place more required regulations of case workers, but perhaps also played the unfortunate role in the increased burnout of those within the field of child and family services. Regardless of this potential repercussion, the bill holds true intentions to make the system not only function better, but improve the care and quality of child and family services. Put into federal law September 24, 2011, it has been working towards progress and improvements within the system (H.R. 2883 (112th): Child and Family Services Improvement and Innovation Act, 2011). Legislations Goals of H.R. 2883. The goals of this legislation are substantial and numerous. From its more obvious influences directlyShow MoreRelatedEarly Literacy : The Foundation Of Learning1316 Words   |  6 PagesIn this paper we will dive deep into the world of early literacy by discussing what it is exactly and when it begins to develop. We will also talk about some recommendations for parents as well as teachers on how to create a literacy rich environment. We will also Identify, define, and explain the six early literacy skills children must possess in order to become successful readers. There will also be some discussion of the early literacy behaviors of infants and toddlers. We will also take a lookRead MoreThe Effect of Childhood Sexual Abuse during Adulthood1309 Words   |  6 Pagesabout the effects that child abuse has on Adults? This study purpose is to try and pinpoint the effects that psychosexual functioning in adults has on sexually abused children. During this study it got a closer look at how events of childhood sexual abuse effected psychosexual functioning, emotional, behavioral and evaluative after childhood. This article looks at the effect that childhood sexual abuse can have on an adult. It compares the different effects if the child tells someone when theRead MoreThe Genetic Disease Of Down Syndrome1484 Words   |  6 PagesScenario Paper: Down Syndrome; Trisomy 21 Michelle Bosserman National University Professor Joan Horvath BIS 405 March 14, 201 Abstract In this paper, the author will analyze the genetic disease of Down syndrome. The author will give a definition of this genetic disorder, and explain some of the characteristics associated. The author will then discuss its scientific causes, and detail both prenatal and birth testing methods availableRead MoreMy Reflection Of Writing1579 Words   |  7 PagesThis semester I wrote three essays; a review essay, annotated bibliography, and a research paper. As I wrote these essays I learned what they were, why they are written, and why people use these to obtain information. Throughout this course I enjoyed writing the essays and learning new things from what I was writing about. Although some were not easy I still took my time and made sure they were perfect in my eyes. While taking this class I learned a new perspective of writing these specific papersRead MoreFreud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development Applied to Finding Nemo1746 Words   |  7 Pagessubjects that people eith er understand or do not get it at all. Many people that study psychology also study different people and their own personal views on that person’s analysis. The views range from the founder or real first known one to study this subject Freud, to people that took his views and went in a different direction. Some of the more relevant psychologist is Skinner and Rotter who have taken personal psychology to greater depths and studies. All the people that study the personalityRead MoreDreaming from Various Sources1456 Words   |  6 Pages The objective of this paper is to explore many articles covering the purpose of dreaming from various sources. The articles, however, may vary from researcher to researcher. As such, this paper will also detail the different theories about the usefulness of dreams. This paper will also take time to explain what a dream is, when dreams happen, and what their potential purposes may be. To start this paper, we first must understand what a dream is. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionaryRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe; Fame Inspired by a Tragic Life865 Words   |  4 Pagesdarker story. Many who have studied this prestigious man feel that his works, though magnificent, were extremely dark. Some believe it was nothing more then a fancy for him to spin such gruesome tales. Others feel his work was manipulated by the misfortune of his past. These people have actually found evidence that agrees with this statement. The works of Edgar Allan Poe were inspired by the history and life style of the author. The evidence is evident, when people look back and examine the author, hisRead MorePersonal Statement For Employee Development Essay783 Words   |  4 Pagesemployer was that she possessed a deep-seated longing to become the primary caregiver for her child. However, the truth behind her departure was that tension between her and a newly promoted, inexperienced, an d unsupportive supervisor had created an undesirable work environment. This manager strictly enforced a traditional work schedule without consulting the organization’s guidelines for employee development, which included flexible work schedules. By doing this, the supervisor refused to considerRead MoreA Cultural Analysis of Mexico Essay1399 Words   |  6 PagesHofstede conducted a study of over 100,000 IBM employees in over seventy-one countries in order to identify these principal values in different cultures. After his initial study, he conducted additional research in additional countries not in the IBM sample. Through his study and additional research, he identified five dimensions along which dominant patterns can be categorized; individualism versus collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, masculinity versus femininity, and long-term versusRead MoreNarcissistic Personality Disorder ( Npd )1176 Words   |  5 PagesSarah Inafuku PSY - 102 December 18, 2016 Georgette Gorman Research Paper: Narcissism Everyone is born with a natural sense of pride and self-importance. According to Sanderson (2015), pride can be defined as, â€Å"A pleasant, sometimes exhilarating, emotion that results from a positive self-evaluation† (p. 35). Judging by that definition, pride seems as though it is a positive emotion that helps to build confidence and self-worth. However, pride can also be a very dangerous feeling that could possibly

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Distraction in chesnutts novel Essay Example For Students

Distraction in chesnutts novel Essay Are you seriously considering the possibility of a mans being turned into a tree, questions John of his wife in Charles Chesnutts novel The Conjure Woman. His attention to the supernatural in the stories told by Uncle Julius lead him to miss the significance of the themes behind the stories. Rather than understanding, the humanity of the slave and his need for love he simply focuses on the fact that he Sandy becomes a tree. This is just one example of Johns misunderstanding of the stories told by Uncle Julius.The characters inability to look beyond the surface of the stories he hears, influences his perception of the validity of these stories. Further, because he refuses to look beyond the rational, he is unable to see the essential elements of evil in slavery. In addition, the protagonists faults are representative of societys ability to romanticize and gloss over the institution of slavery and are a negation of the sentimentality of slavery, prevalent in society during that period. The stories within the stories, as told by Uncle Julius, relay several themes important in rebutting the sentimentality of slavery. One theme Uncle Juliuss stories rebut is that of the relationship between families. One way in which the author addresses this issue is in Sis Beckys Pickaninny. Chesnutt condemns the treatment of slaves as capital, while confirming their need for family. To illustrate, when Becky is traded for a racehorse she is devastated by the loss of her son. In order to keep the family together the aunt resorts to hiring a local conjure woman to bring the family together again. Only after Becky and Mose are reunited, is she able to find some semblance of happiness. Beckys desire to remain with her son dispels the myth that African Americans were inhuman, incapable of caring about their children. At the same time, the story indicts the nostalgia for slavery as a good and fair institution. John appears to miss the implication a he is too busy focusing on the practical matters of the story. Annie on the other hand, searches for the true meaning behind the story and finds truth in it. When her husb and points out the unearthly qualities of the story she responds, Oh well, I dont care. Those are mere ornamental details and not at all essential. The story is true to nature, and might have happened half a hundred times (159). Another denunciation of slavery as beneficial to the slave made by Chesnutt in his stories is that of love between slave men and women. Because the slave is viewed as a piece of property, they are thought to be unable to love one another. In the stories Po Sandy and Mars Jeems Nightmare, the slave owner is condemned for forbidding marriage between slaves. For example, in the former Dunkin loses one of his best slaves because he treats him as an animal, shuffling him back and forth between families. In addition, Jeems suffers a hellish nightmare because he is unwilling to treat his slaves as anything more than chattel. While John again misses the point of these stories due to his refusal to see the stories as anything more than amusement, his wife stays true to form and looks past the exterior of the stories, rebuking the institution of slavery. Regarding slavery and the destruction of families Annie states, What a system it was (60). Finally, Uncle Juliuss stories address the destru ction of nature and the black man at the hands of the slave master. To illustrate, in The Goophered Grapevine their greedy owner destroys Henry and the grapevine. Mcadoo sells Henry year after year and buys him back after a conjure woman places a spell on him that allows him to become young in the spring and decline into old age again in the winter. In the end, he loses both due to his greed to make the largest profit. Neither John nor Annie appear to understand the implications of this story. That is the kinship felt between African Americans and nature. .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254 , .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254 .postImageUrl , .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254 , .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254:hover , .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254:visited , .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254:active { border:0!important; } .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254:active , .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254 .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u31c855d5b54f3231acf4f02fc5891254:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: In Search of the Real Bill Gates EssayJohns inability to see the true nature of Uncle Juliuss stories reflects the limitations of white societys understanding of the black mans life, as rooted in the slave experience. His restricted sympathy and misunderstanding f Juliuss display a larger theme of the white worlds inability to understand the race problem. Juliuss continuous attempt to engage his employer in an understanding of the black culture reflects Chesnutts attempt to do the same in his novels.